The human body is exposed to many living things. Settling in tissues or organs, they trigger the development of diseases, often accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. People suffer from protozoan, fungal, viral and bacterial infections, but parasitic worms - helminths - are represented by the greatest variety of species. Only medicines added to folk recipes will help get rid of it.
Types of parasites, their localization and methods of transmission
There are many types of helminths that affect the human body, but they are all divided into 3 large groups. This classification is based on the anatomical characteristics of the parasite:
- Nematodes (roundworms)usually short in length. Females and males of these helminths are different from each other. Females are usually larger, because inside their bodies mature eggs, which then come out with human feces. The worms are colonized in the intestines in large numbers. The nematode class includes roundworms, hookworms, pinworms.
- Trematodes (flukes)- small lanceolate worms with suckers on the ventral surface of the body. Due to this, it is securely installed in the host body. Representatives of such helminths are liver fluke and cat fluke.
- Cestodesreaches an impressive size and consists of a head with a hook or sucker and many repeated segments filled mainly with genital organs. This group of helminths includes cattle and pig tapeworms, echinococcus, and broad tapeworms.
The danger to humans is not only sexually mature individuals. Some cestodes use humans as intermediate hosts. This means that adult worms do not settle in the intestine, but cysts can form in muscle tissue or other organs - the formation of large spheres - these are helminth larvae.
Eggs and cysts are widely distributed in the environment, because the dense shell reliably protects them from aggressive conditions. Entering the human body, the initial stage begins the full cycle of parasite development. Sources of infection are:
- meat that does not undergo heat treatment;
- unwashed vegetables or fruits;
- unboiled water;
- infected person.
Some parasite species have another mode of transmission - the so-called self-infection. An interesting example of this phenomenon is enterobiasis in children. Worms crawl out to the surface of the anal sphincter, and the child in a dream accidentally brushes this area. This leads to picking up helminth eggs on the fingers and accidentally swallowing them. For this reason pinworms are difficult to treat.
Symptoms of parasite infestation
Drug treatment is not started until the doctor is sure that the person has a helminthic invasion. The most reliable diagnostic method is recognized as a laboratory study of feces, however, the presence of parasites in the body can be suspected by:
- Intestinal and stomach disorders.Often, the gastrointestinal tract responds to the presence of helminths with diarrhea. Nausea is another common symptom.
- Allergic rash.Parasites in the human body can exist for a long time. In this case, the worms secrete waste directly into the intestinal cavity, which leads to intoxication and the appearance of rashes on the body and face.
- illAn unpleasant sensation is present if the parasite reaches an impressive size. Discomfort worries a person when large cysts of tapeworms form in their organs.
- Weight reduction.Helminths have a reduced digestive system and eat their host. As a result, a person does not receive the necessary compounds and experiences weight loss in combination with anemia.
- Fatigue and weakness.Symptoms of this parasite are also associated with nutrient deficiencies. Another reason for a constant decrease in strength is washing out electrolytes along with fluids during diarrhea.
- Itching.A strong burning sensation in the anus disturbs when the parasite settles in the rectum. This sign usually indicates the presence of pinworms.
The symptoms listed do not always indicate helminthic invasion, however, to avoid complications, it is better to consult a specialist. Stool and blood tests will clarify and allow the doctor to choose a therapeutic strategy.
When do you want to see a doctor?
Helminthiasis is a dangerous condition that leads to widespread poisoning of the human body. For this reason, signs of the presence of parasites should not be ignored. Such an invasion is treated with medication, and the doctor makes all the necessary appointments.
You need to contact a specialist if several symptoms characteristic of an invasion occur at the same time. To clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to submit biomaterials for laboratory tests, because any signs may indicate other problems - dysbacteriosis, food poisoning, functional disorders of the digestive tract.
It is very important to undergo an unscheduled examination if the typical symptoms of parasites do not disappear for a long time. Acute diarrhea that lasts more than 3 days in a row, persistent vomiting, general weakness - all this should worry people.
Another reason to see a doctor is severe pain localized in any part of the body. When tapeworm cysts form, the liver, lungs, heart muscle, and even the brain are affected. This form of helminthiasis cannot be cured with medicine, only surgical intervention will help. The earlier the operation is performed, the higher the probability of a favorable result, so you should not delay the visit to the parasitologist.
Overview of drugs for the treatment of helminthiasis
If the specialist confirms helminthiasis, therapy begins. The symptoms and treatment of different types of invasion are different, so the method is chosen taking into account the type of parasite. Traditionally, those that can destroy worms of all classes are considered the most effective, however, such complex action drugs are recognized as highly toxic. For this reason, they are not prescribed if it is possible to cure the disease in other ways.
If the parasite in the body is represented by roundworms, then therapy is carried out using drugs from the imidazothiazoles group. Its active ingredients have a negative effect on the worm's muscles. Helminths lose their ability to fix in the intestinal lumen, which leads to their excretion during defecation. When treated with medicine, the worms come out alive. This feature allows one to avoid intoxication during the mass death of parasites.
It is allowed to treat aggression with this drug from early childhood. It is only important to choose the right dose, which depends on the patient's weight. Children are required to take the drug at 250 mg, and teenagers and adults - at 500-750. After one use, the unpleasant symptoms will disappear, but the course of treatment must be repeated after 10 days. This is due to the peculiarities of nematode reproduction. During this period, adult worms are formed from eggs and larvae, which are related to the active drug.
It is more difficult to treat helminthiases provoked by tapeworms. Imidazoliazole does not damage their muscle layers. Cestodes have additional devices for fixation - hooks and suckers at the end of the head of the body - scolex. To remove these parasites, agents with other properties are needed.
In relation to tapeworms, drugs from the group of benzimidazoles are effective. Medicinal substances work by changing the metabolism of helminths, which causes the parasitic worms in the intestines to lose the opportunity to eat normally and soon die. Tablets can hardly be called safe for health, because dead worms always lead to decay products entering the bloodstream. To avoid negative consequences, patients have to strictly follow the instructions, which indicate that the maximum permissible dose for adults is 500 mg per day. The general course of treatment lasts at least 5 days.
A number of pharmaceutical products contain benzimidazole carbamate derivatives. These drugs are successfully used for the treatment and prevention of parasites. Tablets and suspensions work on the principle of changing the metabolic process of worms, which leads to the rapid disappearance of symptoms and signs of the disease.
Similar drugs are prescribed for the treatment of worms in humans with diagnosed cestodosis or an invasion of unknown nature. Funds are also required in the formation of parasitic cysts in internal organs. It is not possible to completely eliminate these formations with drugs, but drugs will help to significantly reduce their size and relieve external symptoms.
Folk treatment methods
Not only pharmaceutical preparations help to get rid of parasites in the human intestine. In some cases, it is allowed to treat helminthiases with alternative drugs. There are several proven recipes that can help you get rid of worms and reduce the intensity of symptoms, and also serve as an excellent prevention.
Traditionally, the most effective way to cleanse the body is the use of a mixture of three medicinal plants. To do this, take 12 g of wormwood, 6 - cloves and 4 - tansy in crushed form. This medicine is taken orally before meals with a large amount of water. At the beginning of treatment, it is enough to eat ½ teaspoon once a day, but this amount increases gradually. At the end of the intake, one should take the herbal mixture three times a day. Experts believe that the parasite will leave the gastrointestinal tract after 9-10 days of such therapy.
Wormwood medicinal plant is also used as an independent remedy for various helminthiases. Adult patients can take alcohol tincture of 15 drops twice a day, and a decoction is prepared for children. To do this, pour a spoonful of raw material with boiling water and heat it over low heat. This tool is drunk before meals or used as a solution for an enema. Artemisia-based recipes are effective against worms that parasitize the human body due to the high concentration of essential oils in the flowers and leaves of this plant.
A popular folk recipe is the use of pumpkin seed infusion. This method allows you to treat not only helminthiases, but also infections with protozoa. The raw material is passed through a meat grinder and filled with water. Next, the mixture is heated for an hour and infused. The liquid formed above is taken orally, and then any laxative is drunk. Parasites with such treatment leave the body as soon as possible.
Garlic is used to remove worms and to prevent helminthiasis. This vegetable is rich in phytoncides, which have an adverse effect on worms. To increase the effect, crushed cloves are taken and mixed with whole milk. This recipe is best not to use in early childhood, because the child's body has a sensitive gastrointestinal tract.
Parasites in the body may not manifest for a long time, but this does not mean that they do not need to be eliminated. Treatment is needed to prevent toxicity and restore nutrient absorption. It is better to run it with medicine; as a preventive measure, it is appropriate to use proven alternative medicine recipes.