Parasites are always present in the human body. These can be pathogenic worms and amoebae, and protozoa that do not cause disease, and sometimes help overcome the bacterial flora. Parasites, which feed on the host, injure internal organs and disrupt the functioning of vital systems, pose a threat to health.
Classification of human parasites
Human parasites can be of several types. Often in the body and on its surface, protozoa, arthropods and helminths settle. Some organisms are constant human companions, others use them as temporary reservoirs for transition to the next stage of development.
True parasites cannot live without a host and die in an independent environment. The wrong person can feel the same thing on the human body, on the ground, in the water and on the objects around it. There are also hyperparasites that live in their own kind and live from them. Depending on the localization, parasites are divided into:
- Inner. These are endoparasites that feed on intestinal juices, organ tissues, blood and lymph.
- Outside. They are called ectoparasites, they live on the body, in the hair and in the folds of the skin.
- Tissue. Its habitat is the internal organs (liver, heart, lungs, gallbladder, brain).
- Stomach. These parasites live, feed, and multiply in the intestines and stomach.
- Intracellular or blood. Its size is usually microscopic and is found in biological fluids.
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In addition to the general classification, there is an individual division of all types of parasites into species and classes. Protozoa can be represented by ciliates, sarcodes and amoebas. Worms are divided into tapeworms, tapeworms and ringworms. Arthropoda include insects, arachnids and blood -sucking insects.
What parasites are there in humans
People are also often infected with protozoa and helminths. Insects are diagnosed primarily in less fortunate individuals. Adults, unlike children, can be infected with all known parasites. This is due to the diversity of diets and the ability to travel. Many are led by the misleading opinion that parasitic diseases are diagnosed in childhood. They are actually detected more often at an early age, but sick adults are not uncommon than children, only clinical signs of aggression can be eliminated from them.
Protozoa and their localization
These unicellular parasites live in the adult body for decades, they have been studied by protozoological science. They can cause infections and general illness. Active individuals are called trophozoites and usually have flagella for movement. To continue the life cycle, protozoa have the ability to wear capsules (cysts). These forms do not move and persist in the external environment and adverse conditions for a long time.
In adults, many species of flagellates are parasitic. They have different microscopic dimensions and localization:
- Trichomonas affects the genitourinary system, oral cavity and prostate gland in men;
- intestinal balantidia live in the lumen of the colon;
- lamblia parasites in the liver, bile ducts and intestines;
- plasmodia malaria destroys blood cells;
- toxoplasma with blood flow carried to all organs, including the brain;
- trypanosomes invade the brain and cause "sleep disorders";
- Leishmania resides in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver and bone marrow;
- amente dysentery lives in the large intestine.
All the simplest types of parasites have a similar life cycle, which is done by changing the vegetative stage to a cystic stage. Reproduction in unicellular organisms occurs both sexually and asexually.
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Protozoa are true parasites and cannot exist at the trophozoite stage without a permanent or intermediate host.
Diseases caused by parasites of the worm class
In the adult body, the presence of round and flat worms is often detected. They differ in size, characteristics of life and the degree of negative impact on organs and systems.
There are several types of these parasites in a person at once. They belong to the class of ringworms and are similar to spindles. Worms feel free in the host body and in the open environment. Among the common nematode causative agents:
- Ascaris. Lives in the small intestine, measures 20 to 40 cm long and reproduces sexually.
- Cream worms. Small worms, no more than 12 mm in length. It affects the gut and can lay up to 15, 000 eggs per day. Males die after mating, females after larval deposition.
- Ankylostoma. Live in the jejunum and duodenum. These parasites in a person can inhale up to 0. 3 ml of blood per day, damaging the intestinal wall with sharp teeth.
- Vlasoglav. The worm is up to 5 cm long, lives in the intestine and, thanks to its unique body structure, sucks juices from the thickness of its walls.
- Trichinella. This is an intramuscular parasite measuring up to 4 mm in size, which causes a dangerous disease of trichinosis in humans. Trichinella looks like a spiral and is a viviparous helminth.
- Guinea fowl. This parasite in the human body reaches a length of 1 meter and looks like a thin white thread. Localization of rishta can be done in the subcutaneous layer area of the legs, back or lower abdomen.
- Filaria. They enter the body through the bites of infected mosquitoes, midges and horseflies. The habitat of filaria is the entire circulatory and lymphatic system. They clog the blood vessels of the heart, lungs and other organs, causing blockages.
- Toxic acid. Worm larvae migrate throughout the body and infect the heart, lungs, liver and brain. The size of adult helminths reaches 18 cm.
- Intestinal acne. The causative agent of kuatyloidiasis, at the stage of sexual maturity, resides in the intestine. Eel larvae can spread through the human body through the bloodstream.
The negative effects on the body of the ringworm are due to its mechanical and toxic effects.
This is a parasite that lives in humans and has a second name for coincidence. There are several types of these flatworms. They cause different diseases, but are similar in structure. All fluxes have a leaf -shaped body with two suction cups. Trematodes have no anal openings; digested food is excreted through the mouth.
Trematode parasites affect the body depending on their location. Hepatic flux, scalpels, and cats affect the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. Incidentally the lungs live in the lungs, the blood in the ducts.
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Flukes always have an intermediate host in the form of various mollusks.
These types include tapeworms or tapeworms. They have a special structure and look like a chain of their separate fragments (strobilus). Cestodes are intestinal parasites and release large amounts of toxins into the body.
Among the worms of this class that are common in adults:
- Wide ribbon. The largest parasite, 15 meters long, absorbs nutrients throughout the body and poisons the body with its toxins.
- Pig tapeworms. It is the causative agent of teniasis, 3 meters long and "armed" with several hooks.
- The cow tapeworm consists of more than a thousand segments and grows up to 10 meters.
- Dwarf tapeworms. The size of the worm is not more than 5 cm, in the human body it lives about 2 months and then dies.
- Echinococcus and alveococcus. Helminths cause liver and lung disease and can form larval blisters on internal organs.
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Cestodes are very dangerous because of the ability to parasites in the form of cysticercus. These are encapsulated larvae that spread to all organs with the bloodstream, causing massive attacks.
The most common ectoparasites living in the human body are lice. It lives on the scalp, under the armpits, groin, beard, and even on the eyelashes and eyebrows. Diseases caused by parasites are called head lice. Depending on the localization, body lice, genital lice and head lice are distinguished. You can get rid of insects with the help of external agents in the form of shampoos, ointments and solutions.
The danger of fleas lies in their ability to carry typhus with saliva, which is a serious infectious disease.
Symptoms of parasites in the human body
With external insects such as fleas and ticks, all is clear, they are indicated by local itching and the formation of wounds at the site of the bite. Internal parasites cause a more distinct clinical picture. It depends on the localization of foreign organisms, their size and mass invasion.
In humans, hundreds of worms and protozoa of one or different species are simultaneously capable of performing parasites. Parasites can live in a person unnoticed for several years and do not cause specific symptoms. Common signs of infection include:
- constipation or diarrhea;
- changes in appetite towards its increase or decrease;
- anemia for no apparent reason;
- increased anxiety;
- sleep disorders;
- distortion of taste.
With liver damage, the clinical picture is complemented by pain in the right hypochondrium, yellowing of the skin and bitterness in the mouth. Filariasis is indicated by signs of heart and respiratory failure, toxoplasmosis is accompanied by dysfunction of the central nervous system. With trichinosis, the muscles are affected.
When the genitourinary system is affected by protozoa, signs of infection in women are indicated by frequent urination, vaginal discharge and urethra and itching. With intestinal invasion, symptoms of infection in adults may not appear for many years, during which parasites multiply and weaken the human immune system, which contributes to the development of chronic and systemic diseases.
Symptoms of the presence of protozoa in the body are often indicated by fever, headache and allergic reactions. Often, one of the first signs of parasites in the body is a rash on the body and itchy skin. This is due to the human body's response to foreign proteins.
The general signs of the presence of parasites in the body in the early stages may be similar to intestinal infections, dermatitis, and digestive disorders.
Why are parasites dangerous?
In humans, parasitic infections can cause a variety of reactions and complications. If the invasion is provoked by small worms, then the risk of complications is relatively small. When infected with large worm species or highly pathogenic protozoa, health hazards are unpredictable.
In addition to certain diseases, which sometimes have a severe course, foreign individuals become the cause of serious dysfunction of vital systems. Toxins released by parasites into the blood affect the central nervous system and poison the body. Large helminths have a negative mechanical effect on organs. Many doctors believe that such tissue trauma leads to oncology and tumors. In addition, parasites cause ulcerative lesions of the intestine and stomach, bronchitis and pneumonia, cystitis and pancreatitis, cholecystitis and colitis.
Sometimes the symptoms of large worms in adults can appear in the form of an acute abdomen. This occurs when the intestinal lining is damaged by worms and the development of peritonitis.
Possible causes of infection and preventive measures
There are many ways to get infected with parasites. People are exposed to infections on a daily basis. When eating uncooked meat and fish, there is a risk of picking up worms such as flukes and trichinella. If not enough hand washing or fruits and vegetables, you can put cream worm eggs, ascaris, toksocar and other worms into your mouth. While visiting exotic countries, you can be infected with rare parasites such as rice, plasmodium malaria and trypanosomes.
Carriers of the infection are pets and wild, blood -sucking animals, crustaceans and mollusks, as well as ants. Prevention is about reducing the risk of infection through good hand hygiene and proper heat treatment of meat and fish products.
Tourism lovers should first study the mode of infection with parasites that live in a particular country.
Sometimes it is possible to detect invasion in the body by spreading the basis of biological fluids and feces for analysis, as well as by studying the anamnesis. But not all parasites show clinical symptoms and form larvae. Therefore, PCR and ELISA are recognized as the best diagnostic methods. This is an immunological test that detects parasite DNA and antibodies against it in venous blood.
Computer diagnostics are also popular now, but only help prove the fact of infection, without identifying specific pathogens. Hemoscanning of blood is also required now, which is done by multiplying biological material.
Duodenal intubation helps learn all about parasites in the liver. During the procedure, bile is taken with subsequent laboratory examination. With echinococcosis at the stage of blisters in the liver and lungs, the body is diagnosed with ultrasound, MRI and X-rays. Intestinal specimens can be seen on colonoscopy.
Modern techniques make it possible to identify the invasion at the first signs of infection, therefore, to avoid the occurrence of complications, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
To combat invasion, drug treatment of parasites in the human body, a diet with a ban on starchy foods, sweets, alcohol, as well as the methods of the author are used. Gathered with cloves, tansy and wormwood helps fight disease. The method based on the intake of sweet tea with cognac (1 tablespoon per glass) on an empty stomach, followed by the use of laxatives, has also allowed it.
Pharmaceutical drugs for parasites are available in the form of suspensions, tablets, suppositories and injectable solutions. From protozoa, adults are prescribed to take antiprotozoal drugs.
You need to treat the parasite for 5 days.
To get rid of anthelmintics like ascaris, sometimes one use of an anthelmintic tablet is enough. They destroy the worms from within, paralyzing their muscular system. It is more difficult to cure a person from flux disease, echinococci and alveococci. The course of treatment for the body sometimes lasts up to 6 months.
To get rid of parasites forever, you need to take the medicine according to the scheme prescribed by the doctor.
Self-medication with drugs in pharmacies is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of deterioration of the condition. Sometimes the first signs of parasite death are indicated by the release of toxins into the blood, which requires additional prescription of detoxification therapy.
Treatment with folk remedies
If parasites appear in the body that cause certain infections such as malaria, toxoplasmosis or trichomoniasis, home treatment should not be considered. In this case, qualified medical treatment is required.
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Traditional medicine is allowed to be used for prophylaxis or as adjunctive therapy.
To get rid of aggression, natural remedies are used based on ingredients, flowers and products with high content of essential oils.
You can be treated for parasites:
- wormwood inclusions (tablespoons per liter of boiling water);
- decoction of tansy (20 grams of herb per 500 ml of boiling water);
- garlic milk (head of garlic in 250 ml of hot milk);
- onion porridge (cut two onions and mix with vegetable oil);
- pumpkin seed dessert (mix a glass of nucleoli with half a glass of honey);
- pumpkin puree (1 kg of pulp, steam in the oven for an hour and rub).
Natural remedies should be taken at least 10 days in one tablespoon before each full meal.
Reviews on the treatment of parasites
- "I feed the whole family with pumpkin seeds. I dry them at room temperature, mix them with jam, condensed milk or honey and serve them with tea. As a result, no one suffers from parasites".
- "My husband had a stomach ache near the navel for a year, he was tormented by nausea, passed many tests and found nothing. Recently, a doctor at a paid clinic wrote a prescription for a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug, my husband took one pill andafter a week the pain stopped. "
- "For prophylactic purposes, every fall I take antihelminthic medication, because in this country I sometimes eat vegetables straight from the bush. The suspension is cheap, tastes good, and is acceptable. "